|1. Write a simple (one step) formula for photosynthesis:|
|2. Name four fundamentally-different conditions plants require from the environment in order to continue to grow, reproduce, and feed a trophic pyramid of other organisms?|
1. minerals from soil
2. light from the sun
3. water from the soil
4. reasonable temperature in climate
|3. Sketch a typical trophic pyramid, and name what is in each level of this pyramid. Explain how the dimensions of the pyramid pertain to biomass and numbers of individuals and perhaps numbers of species.|
1. Secondary (Top) Carnivore (Tertiary Consumer)
2. Primary Carnivore (Secondary Consumer)
3. Herbivore (Primary Consumer)
4. Producer (Plant)
5. The producer base is wider than each successively smaller layer because of energy losses in each exchange, so it takes a larger base to support the next layer.
6. The difference in biomass may be reflected in numbers of individuals within populations, with larger populations of producers than top carnivores
7. It is also true that the species diversity among producers will be higher than the species diversity of top carnivores...competition is less at the lower levels of the pyramid and there are better changes for niche diversity.
4. Explain how a trophic pyramid might have an unexpected relationship between the trophic levels based upon biomass. Repeat, based upon number of individuals.|
In an aquatic biome, the phytoplankton might not have much standing biomass for the producer level, but the reproduction rate might be very high explaining how a larger biomass of herbivores might be present in the ecosystem
In a forest biome, for example, the trophic pyramid might have a very small number of huge trees in a given area, leading the number of producer individuals to be far less than the number of herbivores in that area.
5. Distinguish primary and secondary succession. What is meant by the term climax community? What features of a climax community are different from the features of a successional sere?|
Primary succession is an orderly progression of species as bare earth is initially colonized, populated and configured for a complete trophic pyramid
Secondary succession is also an orderly progression of species, but it occurs after disturbance of an already populated area. Generally formation of soil is not involved in secondary succession.
A climax community is the complete set of populations that are found in an area at the end of succession.
Climax communities are marked by a large diversity of species and virtually no change in the habitat caused by the organisms. Successional seres are marked by less species diversity and with biotically induced changes in the habitat.
6.What are the three essential parts of a seed?|
1. seed coat
3. storage tissue
7. What are the three vegetative organs of a typical plant?|
8.What is the principal function of each of the three vegetative organs of a typical plant?|
1. root-absorb water and minerals from soil and transport to rest of plant
2. stem-hold leaves in light, transport water and minerals up to leaves, sugars and AA to root
9. What are the three primary tissues of the young parts of any one of the three organs of a plant?|
2. ground meristem
10. Make a sketch of a leaf cross section and label layers with primary tissue origin. |
1. upper epidermis -protoderm
2. palisade mesophyll - ground meristem
3. xylem - provascular
4. phloem - provascular
5. spongy mesophyll - ground meristem
6. lower epidermis - protoderm
11. Make a sketch of a dicot stem cross section and label layers with layer names.|
5. vascular cambium
12. Make a sketch of a dicot root cross section and label layers with layer functions.|
1. epidermis - cation exchange
2. cortex - storage
3. endodermis - selective mineral uptake
4. pericycle - form branch roots
5. phloem - transport sugars and amino acids down from leaves
6. xylem - transport water and minerals up from soil
This page © Ross E. Koning 1994.
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