Biology 332
Fall 2003

Exam I

Name__________________________
1. Write a simple (one step) formula for photosynthesis: 6-
CO2 + H2O light
-------------------->
chlorophyll
O2 + CH2O
2. Taxonomically, what is a plant? 7-
Name the kingdoms which have
organisms that are probably plants.
Plantae and Protista
Name three major phyla of true plants. Anthophyta Coniferophyta Bryophyta
Name the two classes of flowering plants. Monocotyledonae Dicotyledonae
3. Name four fundamentally-different conditions plants require from the environment in order to continue to grow, reproduce, and feed a trophic pyramid of other organisms. 4-
watercarbon dioxide
mineralslight, etc.
4. Sketch a typical trophic pyramid, and name what is in each level of this pyramid. Explain how the dimensions of the pyramid pertain to the energy processed by each level of the pyramid. 8-
Herbivores
Producers
<---------------------------------- Amount of Energy Processed ---------------------------------->
Energy is lost in each level of the trophic pyramid as a result of the second law of thermodynamics, so the energy pyramid is tapered from source (light energy trapped by producers) to sink (energy available to secondary carnivores.

5. Explain how a trophic pyramid might have an unexpected relationship between the trophic levels based upon biomass. Repeat, based upon number of individuals. 4-
Biomass: if producer is small, productive but high predation # Individuals: if producer body size is large

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6. Succession and Climax 6-
Distinguish primary and secondary succession.
1° naturally bare --> climax       2° disruption bare --> climax
What is meant by the term climax community?
Terminal sere in succession
What features of a climax community are different from the features of a successional sere?
diverse w/remnants of seres, little alteration to environment by organisms, stable: many generations w/o community change
7. What's Happening with Connecticut? 5-
What biome encompasses Connecticut? Eastern Deciduous Forest
Is Connecticut's vegetation a primary or secondary sere? Secondary
What is Connecticut's likely climax community in upland areas? Beech-Maple or Oak Hickory
8. Give an example of: 4-
competition between plants canopy tree vs seedling
mutualism involving a plant pollinator/flower or legume/Rhizobium
commensalism involving a plant lichen epiphyte on tree
parasitism among two plant species Indian pipe or Beech drops on host tree
9. What are the three essential parts of a seed? 3-
seed coat embryo storage (endosperm OK)
10. Use a brief essay, a numbered list, or a sketch to tell how the Barley seed germinates. 13-
Barley seed imbibes water. On entry the water dissolves GA produced by embryo. GA is transported to aleurone cells. GA activates DNA gene for alpha amylase production. DNA for amylase is transcribed into mRNA. mRNA is translated into αamylase. Amino acids required for translation come from hydrolysis of storage protein in aleurone cells. α amylase is exported by exocytosis from aleurone to starchy endosperm area. α amylase catalyzes the conversion of starch into maltose, a disaccharide. Maltose is transported into embryo where it fuels growth. Growth of the radicle penetrates the seed coat to accomplish germination.
11. Name the three vegetative organs and their principal functions: 6-
rootanchorage, mineral and water uptake
stemtransport, support display of leaf, flower, fruit
leafphotosynthesis, evaporative cooling

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12. Make a sketch of a leaf cross section and draw lines to the name of mature tissue layers and their primary tissue origin. 12-
Cross SectionLayer Name1° Tissue Origin
-upper epidermisprotoderm
-palisade mesophyllground meristem
-xylemprovascular
-phloemprovascular
-spongy mesophyllground meristem
-lower epidermisprotoderm
13. Make a sketch of a dicot stem cross section and label layers with layer names. 7-
Cross SectionLayer Name
-epidermis
-cortex
-fibers
-phloem
-cambium
-xylem
-pith
14. What would be different if the sketch above were a monocot stem? 3-
Vascular
arrangement
complex, not simple ring
Vascular bundle
composition
no cambium
Ground parenchyma
organization
no pith/cortex distinction
15. Make a sketch of a dicot root cross section and label with names and functions! 12-
Cross SectionLayer Name1° Function
-epidermismineral release from soil, root hairs
-cortexstorage
-endodermisselective mineral intake
-pericyclebranch roots and periderm
-phloemtransport sugar and AA down from leaf
-xylemtransport water and minerals up

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