Name ___________________________________

VASCULAR PLANTS EXAM I

February 26, 1992

Note: in 1992 this course covered only vascular plant biology.
Non-vascular plants were covered in a different course.

Write your name in the space provided above. Double check to be sure you have left no items blank. Make sure your responses are LEGIBLE; if a response is uncertain, it will be marked WRONG. This exam represents 100 of the 1000 points in the course. After this exam is returned to the class, you will have one week to challenge the grading of the exam. Your request must be submitted in writing and should defend your answer.

MULTIPLE CHOICE Circle the letter corresonding to the ONE BEST completion of the statement or answer to the question to the left of each numbered item below.

1. The epidermis

A. is made up of tightly packed collenchyma cells
B. has no cells with chloroplasts
C. is not present in woody roots
D. may have specialized hairs called stomata
E. has none of the above attributes
2. The difference between a simple leaf and a compound leaf leaflet is that
A. the leaflet never has a lateral bud in its axil
B. the leaf never has a lateral bud in its axil
C. the leaflet never has a "petiole" (supporting stalk)
D. the leaf never has a "petiole"
E. the leaflets are always palmately arranged
3. A seedling plant shoot is cut off and the stem end is placed in a glucose solution. The glucose has been labeled with radioactive carbon atoms. After an appropriate short time, the stem is analyzed. In which of the following molecules will the radioactivity be found first?
A. water
B. starch
C. carbon dioxide (and dissolved forms)
D. chlorophyll
E. enzymes
4. A leaf blade is created primarily by
A. apical growth
B. intercalary growth
C. marginal growth
D. cell division at the apical dome
5. The differences between a shoot and a root apex include:
A. no external primordia in the root
B. no cap covering the shoot
C. the zones of elongation and division are separated into several areas in the stem tip
D. all of the above
6. Endarch vascular bundles are those in which
A. the protoxylem is outside the metaxylem
B. the protoxylem is inside the metaxylem
C. the protoxylem is both inside and outside the metaxylem
D. the phloem is outside the metaxylem
E. the phloem is inside the metaxylem
F. the phloem is both inside and outside the metaxylem
7. Bicollateral vascular bundles are those in which
A. the protoxylem is outside the metaxylem
B. the protoxylem is inside the metaxylem
C. the protoxylem is both inside and outside the metaxylem
D. the phloem is outside the metaxylem
E. the phloem is inside the metaxylem
F. the phloem is both inside and outside the metaxylem
8. Fibers are
A. found only in phloem
B. a type of collenchyma cell
C. used in plants for conduction
D. long and hollow and have thick lignified cell walls
E. all of the above
9. Annular (ring-like) thickenings
A. are found in the youngest tracheids of a mature stem
B. become helical and then pitted as an individual tracheid matures
C. are laid down in the protoxylem but not in the metaxylem
D. in a tracheid cell wall provide good support for a mature stem
E. have all of the above attributes
10. Root hairs
A. are secondary roots
B. are lateral roots
C. originate endogenously
D. increase the surface area for absorption
11. The spines of cacti
A. arise from specialized sclerenchyma cells
B. have only marginal growth
C. arise from apical growth of leaf primordia
D. are modified stem branches
12. Which of the following is LEAST likely to be a stem function?
A. photosynthesis
B. anchorage
C. storage
D. support
E. trapping and digesting insects
13. Water entering the root follows which path?
A. epidermis, cortex, endodermis, pericycle, xylem
B. epidermis, endodermis, cortex, xylem
C. epidermis, pericycle, cortex, endodermis, xylem
D. epidermis, cortex, pericycle, endodermis, xylem
14. Which would probably occur if the suberin in the endodermis of a root were to be broken down?
A. water could not be taken up
B. minerals would be taken up more rapidly
C. there would be no noticeable difference
D. the plant would show symptoms of mineral deficiency
15. During the germination of a typical dicot seed, the hypocotyl
A. may lift the cotyledons from the soil
B. will become part of the root system
C. may wither and fall from the stem
D. is an area of active cell division in a mature plant
16. In a typical dicotyledonous leaf in the sun
A. the palisade layer has more chlorophyll than the spongy layer of the mesophyll
B. the spongy mesophyll layer has more chlorophyll than the palisade layer
C. few, if any, stomata are present on the lower surface of the leaf
D. the epidermis has chloroplasts in all cells
17. The stoma controlled by the guard cells immersed in a hypertonic solution will be
A. open maximally
B. opened wider than before immersion
C. opened just as wide as before immersion
D. closed
18. Respiration by mitochondria
A. does not occur in plant cells
B. occurs only in root cells
C. occurs only in parenchyma cells
D. occurs in many kinds of cells
E. occurs in all mature cells
19. Photosynthesis in plants occurs
A. in all above-ground cells
B. in all living cells
C. in cells of some stems
D. only in leaf mesophyll cells
E. none of the choices above are correct
20. The protoplasm of many plant cells may be connected by plasmodesmata to form a system called the
A. apoplast
B. symplast
C. phragmoplast
D. proplastid
E. desmoplast
21. Which of the following would have NO stomata?
A. stem epidermis
B. stem endodermis
C. terrestrial leaf upper epidermis
D. aquatic leaf upper epidermis
E. none of these
22. A typical parenchyma cell
A. is lignified at maturity
B. seldom retains the ability to become meristematic
C. forms a substantial vacuole during maturation
D. is dead at functional maturity
23. The pericycle of a dicot root
A. functions as an impenetrable barrier to water in the apparent free space (apoplast) of the cortex
B. is the origin of root hairs
C. may eventually initiate a lateral root
D. is suberized to prevent water loss
E. has all of the above attributes
24. Lignin can be found in the cell walls of
A. tracheids
B. fibers
C. vessels
D. endodermis
E. all of these
25. The three primary meristematic tissues are
A. provascular, protodermal, and ground
B. epidermal, cortical, and vascular
C. apical, lateral, and cambial
D. apical, axillary, and adventitious
E. parenchyma, collenchyma, and sclerenchyma
26. Which of the following does NOT occur during cell enlargement?
A. increase in water uptake
B. increase in nucleus size
C. increase in cell wall area
D. increase in cell protein
E. increase in organelle complexity
27. Adventitious roots are most likely to arise from
A. incompletely developed parenchyma cells in stems
B. pericycle
C. radicle
D. metaxylem
E. astrosclerids
28. Epidermal cells
A. are a type of parenchyma cell
B. have lignified secondary walls and a waxy cuticle
C. have large, well-developed chloroplasts
D. have dense cytoplasm with no vacuole
29. Compare the three fundamental cell types of plants by listing the character states for each cell type in the blanks below.
CharacteristicMeristematicParenchymaSclerenchyma
Secondary Wall Present?
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   
 
 
   

30. In the space provided below, diagram a cross section of a typical dicot leaf such as Syringa (lilac). Label each type of tissue, layer, or region. Then indicate next to each structure name, the major function for that structure (be sure that these distinguish the structures). "Metabolism" would not be an appropriate function label since all living cells have some type of metabolism. MAKE SURE your drawing represents the leaf cross section well and COMPLETELY FILLS the space below! You should select the most important and distinctive regions to label.
STRUCTUREMAJOR FUNCTION
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

31. Trace the route of water from a root hair in the soil to the atmosphere around a stem and leaf of a plant by filling in the blanks provided below. Assume that the plant is a dicot. List each region or cell the water encounters in its path in sequence; work up each column. When the water enters a different organ, move over to the next column. You may not need all the blanks provided, but then again...
Atmosphere
  
  
  
  
   
 ^Stem^^Leaf^
 
 
 
Water--->^Root Hair^

32. Draw part of a longitudinal section of xylem and phloem below. Draw in annular, helical, and pitted secondary cell wall deposits, assuming that the xylem maturation is exarch and the epidermis is to the right. Show the phloem in the correct position with respect to xylem and draw in the sieve plates and companion cells.

E
P
I
D
E
R
M
I
S

33-41. Match the cells to their cell type. There is ONE BEST cell type answer for each cell. Assume that each cell is functionally mature as described.
Choice
 33. Protodermal Cell
 34. Epidermal Cell
 35. Stone Cell
 36. Cork Cell
 37. Tracheary Element
 38. Fiber
 39. Guard Cell
 40. Mesophyll Cell
 41. Endodermal Cell

A. Meristematic
B. Parenchyma
C. Collenchyma
D. Sclerencyma

 
42. Analyze the cross sections diagrammed below, and fill-in the chart by placing a SINGLE WORD in each blank.

Angiosperm type___________

Organ sectioned___________

Xylem/Phloem Arrangement___________

Xylem Maturation___________

Angiosperm type___________

Organ sectioned___________

Xylem/Phloem Arrangement___________

Xylem Maturation___________

Angiosperm type___________

Organ sectioned___________

Xylem/Phloem Arrangement___________

Xylem Maturation___________

Angiosperm type___________

Organ sectioned___________

Xylem/Phloem Arrangement___________

Xylem Maturation___________

43-53. Throughout the term you have been comparing monocot and dicot plants. Here is your chance to strut your stuff! Match the characteristics to the stem, root, and leaf to which they correspond. More than one organ may correspond to each characteristic. You must have them all assigned correctly to earn the points for each characteristic.
Choices
 43. collateral bundle
 44. endarch
 45. endogenous origin
 46. epidermal hairs
 47. epidermis
 48. exarch
 49. exogenous origin
 50. mesophyll
 51. phloem
 52. pith
 53. xylem

A. Dicot Stem
B. Monocot Stem
C. Dicot Root
D. Monocot Root
E. Dicot Leaf


Go back to the Course Schedule.

Go back to the Exam Directory.