125 - ____ = ______/103 = 72.5%
Biology 332
Fall 2001

Exam II

Name____________________

The secondary plant body has two sections...(14 points)
Vascular SectionDermal Section
Name the meristematic tissue
producing each section.
cambiumcork cambium
Name the sclerenchyma-type derivative
produced in each section.
2°xylemcork
Name the parenchyma-type derivative
produced in each section.
2°phloemphelloderm
Which derivative is produced
most abundantly in each section?
2°xylemcork
On which side of the meristem, does
that most-abundant derivative mature
(inside/outside)?
insideoutside
What is the major wall additive in these
most-abundant derivatives?
ligninsuberin
What is the common name for each
section of the secondary plant body?
woodbark/periderm

Provide a one-step overview of photosynthesis: (6 points)

CO2 + H2Olight
-------------->
chlorophyll
O2 + CH2O

Digging a bit deeper, compare the "Light" and "Dark" reactions of Photosynthesis (10 points)
Light ReactionsDark Reactions
Source of EnergysunlightATP
Needed raw material chemicalsH2O + ADP+Pi + NADPCO2 + NADPH (+ATP)
Product chemicalsO2 + ATP + NADPH2CH2O + ADP + Pi + NADP
Location in cell/organellethylakoid of chloroplaststroma of chloroplast
Electronic or EnzymaticElectronicEnzymatic

Tell briefly what has evolved in C-4 plants and how it improves photosynthetic efficiency under certain circumstances. (4 points)

Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase (PEPCo) catalyzes the attachment of bicarbonate to phosphoenolpyruvate, producing a 4-carbon acid. Because its active site is not keying in on carbon dioxide, there is not competitive inhibition of PEPCo function by oxygen. The release of carbon dioxide from malate floods RuBisCO, swamping out the competitive inhibition between CO2 and O2 at the active site. Thus photorespiration is reduced and PSN is more efficient.

What are the costs of the C-4 pathway? (2 points)

The regeneration of the PEP to regenerate the C-4 cycle costs an additional margin of ATP. This is not a problem in bright light.

In what kind of environment would C-4 plants be competitive with C-3 plants? (2 points)

Where oxygen is plentiful and light is intense, the C-4 plant will be competitive. Tropical grasslands fit this description.

In what kind of environment would C-3 plants have the upper hand? (2 points)

Where CO2 is plentiful, light is limiting, and water freely available, the energy costs of C-4 reactions would reduce their competitive edge. New England forests fit this description.


Below is a diagram of a flower with 5 labels...

Give the one best choice, corresponding to each item below: (28 points)
AndroeciumB NectarC ReceptacleE
AntherB OvaryA SepalD
CalyxD OvuleA StamenB
CarpelA PedicelE StemE
CorollaC PetalC StigmaA
FilamentB PhotosynthesisD/A StyleA
FragranceC PistilA B
GynoeciumA Produces EggA A
Landing PlatformC Produces PollenB
LoculeA Receives PollenA

(4 points)
The ovary shown above is: superior      inferior
The flower shown above is:hypogynous
perigynous
epigynous
perfect
imperfect
complete
incomplete

(4 points)
What are two fundamentally-different
ways that a flower can attract a bee?
1.color
2.odor
What are two fundamentally-different
ways that a flower can reward a bee?
1.nectar
2.pollen

A plant is pollinated by the wind, not by animals. (4 points)
What would be different about the perianth of the flower?small if present
What would be different about the pollen?dry, small
What would be different about the nectar?none or as stigmatic glue
What would be different about its stigma?sticky, feathery, large


Here is a simple data matrix for cladistic analysis:
Characters
Taxon123456
A100010
B110000
C111001
D000000
E111100
F111110

In the space below make a cladogram to show your most-parsimonious reconstruction of the phylogeny among these species. Be sure to put the taxa letters (A-F) and the character state changes (1-5) in the correct places on your dendrogram. 13 points total.


D  A  B  C  E   F
|  |  |  |  |  /
|  =5 |  =6 | =5
|  |  |  |  |/
|  |  |  |  /
|  |  |  | =4
|  |  |  |/
|  |  |  /
|  |  | =3
|  |  |/
|  |  /
|  | =2
|  |/
|  /
| =1
|/

Now answer these questions as revealed in this most-parsimonious cladogram: (15 points)
Which one of the taxa (A-F) is most-likely the outgroup? D
Specify one group of three taxa that constitude one clade: C E F
Which of the characters (1-6) are synapomorphies among this clade? 1 2 3
Which one of the characters (1-6) is a synapomorphy unique to this clade? 3
What taxon (A-F) is the closest relative to this clade? B
Which of the characters (1-6) is autapomorphic? 6
Which of the taxa (A-F) has an autapomorphy? C
Which one of the characters (1-6) is a homoplasy? 5
What type of homoplasy does this character show?
(hint: is it homoplasious within the ingroup
or between the ingroup and outgroup)
parallelism    convergence     reversal
What is the sister group of C? E-F


Cyanophyta--all questions below pertain to cyanobacteria...(17 points)
Of what polymer is the cell wall composed?murein-glycoprotein
Give two examples of portions of an endomembrane systemthylakoid + mesosome
Describe the nucleus of the cell:none! nucleoid with naked circular DNA
Name, in sequence, the stages of mitosis:none! uses binary fission
What kind of cytokinesis is found?furrowing
Name any peculiar antenna pigments for photosynthesis:phycoerythrin + phycocyanin
Describe the chloroplast of these organisms:none! thylakoids in cytosol
What is the carbohydrate storage product for photosynthate?cyanophycean starch
What non-photosynthetic product is stored in the cell?polyphosphate, cyanophycin
Name a cell specialized for enduring adverse conditions:akinete
Name a cell that converts nitrogen gas into soluble NH4+ form:heterocyst
Name the three forms of cellular organization (arrangement) in this group:unicellular, filamentous, colonial
Name two kinds of branching found in one form of cellular organization: true, false
How do these organisms produce new genotype combinations?transformation (conjugation?)



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