|1. Compare the products of the two cambium layers in a dicot stem.
|Name of cambium?
|Cambium forms between which 2 layers?
|Sclerenchyma matures on which side?
|Sclerenchyma derivative is botanically called?
|Sclerenchyma derivative layer commonly called?
|Parenchyma maturing on other side is called?
2. What is produced when a fusiform initial puts a new wall in the:
3. The annual growth ring in a tree trunk is visualized because:
|large spring cells just outside|
small fall cells of previous year.
4. Label the flower completely:
5. Under the name for each of the four whorls above,
write the collective name for the leaves of that whorl.
under stamen: androecium
under petal: corolla
under carpel: gynoecium
under sepal: calyx
6. Photosynthesis: give the one-step generic reaction diagram...
7. Light Reactions of Photosynthesis
The sunlight for the light reactions covers the entire visible spectrum from
to 700 nm.
There are a range of
pigments that transfer light energy to the two reaction-center pigments:
. The numbers in these names indicate maximal light absorption of the color:
. This is why wavelengths longer than
nm cannot drive photosynthesis at all.
The reaction center pigment
loses electrons to an electron transport chain and this provides the energy required to split
and produce the molecule:
(thanks plants!). The electrons flow through an electron transport system that has carriers with
the metallic cofactors:
. Some of these carriers transport the
ion from the
. As these ions leak back across the membrane, they pass through an
which produces the high-energy molecule
. As the energy of this molecule is held in a phosphate-phosphate bond, the process coupled to
electron transport is called
. Ultimately the electrons and protons end up being trapped onto the B-vitamin:
The Calvin Cycle is traditionally named the
reactions, but this is quite misleading. The Calvin Cycle requires both
from the light reactions; so the Calvin Cycle can only operate in the light. The Calvin Cycle uses the enzyme:
from the atmosphere. In a series of steps, ultimately a
-carbon molecule can be used to make a range of biomolecule products.
When two of these are fused, the traditionally-described product:
is synthesized. Two of these hexoses can be joined to make the disaccharide:
which is transported through the
cells to the rest of the plant. One of the problems with the Calvin Cycle is the fact that its first enzyme
must take its substrate from the atmosphere. The atmosphere has the structurally-similar molecule:
in great abundance. As the enzyme cannot distinguish these two molecules, there is a competing
which releases carbon dioxide but makes no ATP. This greatly reduces the efficiency of the Calvin Cycle.
plants have evolved the enzyme:
which uses the dissolved substrate:
rather than an atmospheric one. As oxygen is
in water, the enzyme is far more efficient. In typical plants of this type, the efficient enzyme is found in
cells while the Calvin Cycle operates in
cells. In another group of plants called
plants, the efficient enzyme operates during the
while the Calvin Cycle operates during the
9. Produce a cladogram from the following dataset for plants found growing in a jungle:
The taxon, zilcho, is properly called a(n)
for the rest of the taxa.
The characters 7, 8, and 9, are properly called
The characters 4, 5, and 6 are properly called
for the taxa: sinko, drinko, and mucho.
The character state of 0 is called
while 1 is called
Now that you are done with the cladogram, add the following fossils to your cladogram that
a geologist colleague found in some deep strata. Be sure to put them in the right place! You
might need to organize your cladogram a bit to fit it all in a consistent way.
10. Tell me just a little bit more about each of these cyanobacterial structures.
|Cell Membrane||glycolipid and sulpholipid too
|Mesosomes||ETS and light reactions
|Nucleoid||naked, circular DNA
|Starch||cyanophycean, stored energy
|Polyhedral Bodies||Rubisco crystals
|Cyanophycin||storage protein-N storage
|Lipid Droplet||fat energy storage
|Gas Vacuole||buoyancy in water column
11. In the space below diagram a typical sporic life cycle.