123 - = / 115 = 80.0 %

Biology 332
Fall 2004

Exam 2

The secondary plant body has two sections... 16-
Vascular SectionDermal Section
Name the meristematic tissue
(cambium) producing each section.
vascular cambium cork cambium
Name the primary tissue that is just
outside this cambium
1° phloem epidermis
Name the sclerenchyma-type derivative
produced in each cambium.
2° xylem cork
Name the parenchyma-type derivative
produced in each cambium.
2° phloem phelloderm
Which derivative is produced
most abundantly in each cambium?
2° xylem/scl. cork/sclerenchyma
On which side of the meristem, does that most-
abundant derivative mature (inside/outside)?
inside outside
What is the major wall additive in these
most-abundant derivatives?
lignin suberin
What is the common name for each
section of the secondary plant body?
wood bark/cork


Provide a one-step overview of photosynthesis: 6-
CO2 + H2O light
O2 + CH2O


Digging a bit deeper, compare the "Light" and "Dark" reactions of Photosynthesis 14-
Light ReactionsDark Reactions
Source of Energy light ATP
Needed raw material chemicals H2O (ADP,P,NADP) CO2 (ATP,NADPH)
Product chemicals O2 (ATP, NADPH) CH2O (ADP,P,NADP)
Location in cell/organelle thylakoid stroma
Electronic or Enzymatic electronic enzymatic


Tell briefly what has evolved in C-4 plants and how it improves photosynethic efficiency under certain circumstances. 4-

PEP carboxylase recognizes bicarbonate rather than CO2

What are the costs of the C-4 pathway? 2-

ATP used to drive C-4 Reactions

In what kind of environment would C-4 plants be competitive with C-3 plants? 2-

Hot, dry, low CO2

In what kind of environment would C-3 plants have the upper hand? 2-

Moist, cool, high CO2


Below is a diagram of a flower with 5 labels... 28-

Give the one best choice, corresponding to each item below:

GynoeciumAProduces EggAFEMALEA
Landing PlatformCProduces PollenB
LoculeAReceives PollenA


The ovary shown above is: superior   inferior
The flower shown above is: hypogynous


Cladistic analysis and construction can be used in a variety of fields of inquiry designed to deduce pathways that have already occurred among data of almost any kind. While we used some critter shapes in our laboratory exercsies, one can do cladistic analysis from a range of other possible data sources. For this exam we shall use data from DNA sequencing rather than morphological features. Here is the beginning portion of the nucleotide sequence coding for the glycolysis enzyme, phosphofructokinase, from five different bacterial species. Species A, B, C, and D are in the same genus, but the outgroup (OG) bacteria belong to a "primitive" genus in the same family.
   1          11         21         31         41       50
OG tacggtattt acaacggata cgcgggattg atcagcgaag attgaaaagc
 A tacggtatgt acaagggata cgccggattg atgagcgaag actgaaacgc
 B tacggtatgt acaagggata cgccggattg atgagcgaag actgaaaagc
 C tacggtattt acaacggata cgccgggttg atgagcgaag attgaaaagc
 D tacggtattt acaacggata cgccggattg atcagcgaag attgaaaagc
You can consider each position in this gene's sequence to be a possible character for analysis. Obviously some of these positions are "conservative" (for example: positions 21 and 30) and thus are not helpful for cladistic work. But "variable" positions (underlined above) are useful for distinguishing the evolutionary pathways of species in a particular group of organisms. Remember, that the base found at any position in the sequence of the outgroup is considered plesiomorphic...
so changes observed in the ingroup would be considered apo-morphic. 1-
Show your data matrix for cladistic analysis of these taxa for these variable positions. Be sure to indicate 0 for the plesiomorphic base and 1 for any other base at the sequence position. In other words, do NOT put any letters into the table...just 0 or 1!
Sequence Positions (Characters):7-
Now, using the data in your matrix, construct the most-parsimonious cladogram for these bacteria. Be sure to put the extant bacteria (Outgroup, A, B, C, and D) across the top of your finished cladogram. Along the evolutionary pathways be sure to mark the location for each evolutionary step. I remind you that these steps do not occur ON an ancestor but instead BETWEEN ancestors and descendants! 12-
What is the name for the overall evolutionary change in this cladogram that is demonstrated among the changes at characters 9, 15, and 42? anagenesis 7-
What is the name for the evolutionary change in this cladogram that occurs between characters 24 and 33? cladogenesis
What is the name of the evolutionary change that occurs in character 27? autapomorphy
Bacteria species A and B along with their common ancestor would constitute a? clade
Bacteria species C and D and their ancestors would constitute a? grade
If you discovered a fossil (with DNA!) that was the common ancestor of A and B only, what would be its base at position 15? a   t   g   c
What would be this same fossil ancestor's base at position 48? a   t   g   c


Bonus: Give some reason why the variable positions are likely found in the sequence in the observed numbers here...hint: TAC in DNA corresponds to AUG in the mRNA. 2 bonus
The position numbers are all multiples of three. The third base in each triplet is the "wobble" position, so such positions are more likely to mutate without negative consequences than the other two positions in each triplet.


Cyanophyta--all questions below pertain to cyanobacteria... 18-

Of what polymer is the cell wall composed? murein polysaccharide

Give two examples of portions of an endomembrane system thylakoid, mesosome 2

Describe the nucleus of the cel: none

Name, in sequence, the stages of mitosis: none

What kind of cytokinesis is found? furrowing

Name any peculiar antenna pigments for photosynthesis: phycocyanin, physcoerythrin

Describe the chloroplast of these organisms: none

What is the carbohydrate storage product for photosynthate? cyanophycean starch

What non-photosynthetic product is stored in the cell? polyphosophate

Name a cell specialized for enduring adverse conditions: akinete

Name a cell that converts nitrogen gas into soluble NH4+ form: heterocyst

Name the three forms of cellular organization (arrangement) in this group:

unicellular colonial filamentous 3

Name two kinds of branching found in one form of cellular organization:

true false 2

How do these organisms produce new genotype combinations? parasexual/conjugation