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Biology 332
Spring 1996
Exam IIName____________________________
Inside and Out. Using the terms in the left column, tell what tissue (cell) layer lies on the inside and the outside that defines the arrangement (or what cell/tissue layer is produced on the inside or outside of a location).18
Root Ground Meristemprovascularprotoderm
Cork Cambiumphellodermcork
Vascular Cambium2° xylem2° phloem
Soil Minerals.
Name five macronutrients
CHOPK etc.
Name two micronutrients
CuZn, etc.
Name the three nutrients (in order) in a fertilizer analysis.
Why are these three nutrients singled out for fertilizer inclusion?
These three nutrients are either negatively charged or are large ions with a single positive charge, so they don't adhere to negatively charged clay particles very well (if at all)
What would be a good analysis for a grass lawn fertilizer?
Show, with a sketch, how cation exchange occurs in the soil.
    Points awarded for:
  1. clay particle with negative charge
  2. nutrient ions with positive charge on particle
  3. root hair nearby
  4. H+ released
  5. nutrient released from particle to soil water
  6. uptake of nutrient into root hair
What pH is best for soil in a garden?6-71
Why is it important to control pH in CT before adding fertilizer to your soil?2
Granite rock and Acid rain make soil acidic
Acidity releases nutrients to be leached from soil.
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Roots. In the space below diagram a cross section of a monocot root. Label each area completely with both name and one major function.

    Two points each item below
  1. epidermis - H+
  2. cortex - starch storage
  3. endodermis - selective mineral uptake
  4. pericycle - lateral root formation
  5. phloem - sugar import from leaf
  6. xylem - mineral export to shoot
  7. pith - starch storage

  8. radial-polyarch
What tissue would be found in the vascular cylinder of a young (not yet woody) root of a woody dicot that is (correctly) missing from your diagram above?1
vascular cambium
What kind of root system would be best found in a tall tree? taproot 1
Diagram the root apex and label the parts, meristems, and zones below. The sketch can run horizontally with the root tip to the right.8
  1. root cap
  2. quiescent center
  3. zone of division
  4. zone of elongation
  5. zone of maturation
  6. protoderm
  7. ground meristem
  8. provascular
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Stems. Given the following list of several important functions for herbaceous stems, name the structure that accomplishes the function. Read and think carefully! There may be more than one correct answer...give the best answer.14

Function:Corresponding Structure
Produce leavesapical meristem
Elongation growthinternode
Plastic support while growingcortical collenchyma
Elastic support while growingxylem tracheids
Support when growth is overxylem vessels/phloem fibers
Conduct water and mineralsxylem
Conduct sugar and mineralsphloem
Regulate gas exchangeguard cells/epidermis
Respirationall living cells NOT sclerenchyma
Adds secondary plant body latervascular cambium
Produces primary xylem and phloemapical meristem
Produces cork cambiumcortical parenchyma
Prevent water losscuticle/epidermis
How can you distinguish years of growth in the secondary xylem of a woody stem?2
Spring vessels = large diameter
Fall vessels = small diameter
What triple-layer forms inside the epidermis and takes over its functions in woody stems?1
Now, name the fundamental two epidermis functions and what structure of that secondary layer accomplishes the function.4
Epidermis FunctionSecondary Structure Taking Over Function
prevent water losscork layer
gas exchangelenticel
Name the process of movement of water and minerals up the stem.transpiration8
What force drives the above process in tall trees?evaporation
Name the process of movement of water and sugar in the stem.translocation
What two processes provide the force to explain the flow in the above process?
  1. phloem loading
  2. phloem unloading
Name the product when a fusiform initial divides by adding a new wall in the...
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A sculptor is planning to carve a statue from a log of oak wood. The statue will have a varnish finish that will show all grain patterns present in the carved wood.3

In one part of the design, the sculptor wants the surface to show a quilt-like patchwork of grain; in what plane should this part of the sculpture be carved? transverse
In another part of the sculpture, the sculptor wants the surface to be fine-grained with the direction of grain to be vertical lines; in what plane should this part of the sculpture be carved? transverse
In a third part of the sculpture, the sculptor wants the surface to show concentric rings on the surface; in what plane should this part of the sculpture be carved? transverse
In your book, there was an interesting part about the Spanish as great mariners. They had two types of watercraft...rafts and galleons. The rafts were made of balsa wood (s.g.= 0.12). The galleon keels were made of lignum vitae wood (s.g.= 1.25). Discuss how the two craft managed to float. Why did Spaniards choose each kind of wood? What would happen if you reversed the two uses? Which wood would leave archaeological evidence after a wreck at sea? Explain.8
  1. balsa floats
  2. lignum vitae sinks
  3. raft floats by wood density
  4. galleon floats by displacement (hollow hull)
  5. lignum vitae raft would sink immediately
  6. balsa keel would cause galleon to capsize
  7. lignum vitae would leave remains on seafloor
  8. preserved by lignin (why so dense!)
Leaf. Name the two obvious adaptations found in floating, hydrophytic leaves.
stomata upper epidermishuge floatation gas space
What structure should be a prominent feature
in the mesophyll of a CAM leaf?
vacuole with malate!
Tell how the design of a C-4 plant with Kranz anatomy is efficiently designed to accommodate the photosynthetic reactions carried out in its structure.8
    Two points each item below:
  1. stomata in epidermis - CO2 intake
  2. uniform mesophyll - C-4 pump using PEPCo
  3. bundle sheath - C-3 Calvin Cycle using RuBisCo
  4. phloem - ready for sugar loading
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