BIO 332 Spring 1996
Biology of Plants
Exam IIIName____________________

In the space below, diagram a sporic life cycle. Put the haploid phase on the left. Be sure to name the multicellular plant, any -angia it has, the special cell(s) in the -angia, and the special cell the plant came from. Be sure to name the processes that convert from one side to the other of this life cycle, and the cell(s) that participate in and result from these processes. When finished, use two arrows to show and label the two "shortcuts" that some plant species make.

Give an example of a plant with a sporic life cycle:

slime mold, sea lettuce, moss, or fern--1 point total

There are three fundamentally different types of gametes. Name them and give an example "plant" that has that kind of gamete. 6 points total:
Gamete typesisogamousanisogamousoogamous
Example "plant"ChlamydomonasAllomyces (chytrid)Oedogonium, Moss, Fern

Tell how blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) fit into the life cycles and gamete situations described above.3 points total

Using the example of Anabena (Cyanophyta), tell me about cell differentiation and any important functions that this organism (and others like it) may carry out. How is this organism important in the grand scheme of life on planet Earth? 5 points total

There are three very critical differences between a leaf parenchyma cell and a cell of the stalk of a mushroom. Tell how the mushroom is different in each area. 3 points total
Cell wallChitin instead of cellulose
NucleusHeterokaryotic not one nucleus
OrganellesNo chloroplasts - heterotrophic

3 points total
Name the cells that make up the surface of mushroom gills:basidia
What is their equivalent in a morel?asci
What is the one difference in the way these equivalent cells behave?spores not extruded in the morel cells.

Name two VERY important processes occurring in these surface cells of the mushroom gills. 2 points total
karyogamymeiosis

What are produced by the surface cells of mushroom gills?basidiospores--2 points total

Tell me about sex in a mushroom.4 points total

2 points total
In what fungal structure did you see cyclosis?plasmodium
structure
of aslime mold
fungus group

One fungal division is called Deuteromycota. 2 points total
What forces mycologists to put
a new fungus into this division?
Unknown sexual phase
What does the name of this
division imply for the mycologist?
Duty to determine sexual phase

Just before Dr. Koning did a fiery demonstration in lecture, he muttered something about the spores being several years old and maybe he should have bought new ones or collected fresh ones last fall to be sure the demonstration would work. He's a little overworked and sometimes doesn't think straight...why was his muttering really "off the mark?" 3 points total

Diagram the life cycle of one alga (Kingdom Protista). You may do any species you wish, but I would suggest Chlamydomonas for speed! Label. 7 points total

Name the four "forms" of cellular organization of algae. 4 points total
unicellularfilamentouscolonialparenchymatous

How do the "forms" above relate to evolution of Volvocene algae? 2 points total

from unicellular to colonial

7 points total
Name the divisions for classifying red and brown algae: red: Rhodophyta
brown: Phaeophyta
What special feature do diatoms and horse-tails have in common?silicon in wall
What is the difference between an oogonium and an archegonium?The archegonium has a sterile jacket
The oogonium has cell wall only
What is the difference between the antheridia of mosses and algae?The algal one lacks a sterile jacket
The moss one has a sterile jacket

Tell something about how liverworts respond to gravity.2 points total

Rhizoids form on lower surface

Hornworts have a primitive gametophyte. What makes their sporophyte advanced? 2 points total
photosyntheticintercalary meristem

You find a new species of moss. What do you expect is the ploidy level of the: 4 points total

leafy shoot? 1N calyptra? 1N capsule wall? 2N spores? 1N

List the sequence of evolution of "leaves" from primitive to advanced. Name a type of plant showing each type of leaf. 8 points total
 PrimitiveAdvanced
"leaf" name"leaf"/phyllidenation/prophyllmicrophyllmegaphyll
plant typemossPsilotumLycopodiumFern

Name the primitive and advanced forms of anchorage structures for the vascular plant body and give an example "lower vascular plant" with each. Hint: one is equivalent to a moss! 4 points total
PrimitiveAdvanced
anchorage structurerhizoidroot
lower vascular plant typePsilotumLycopodium etc.

You have seen a sequence of vascular organizations (stele types) in "stems" from mosses through dicots. Give sequences from primitive to advanced that take place along this "line" of evolution. 6 points total

The functions and names of the vascular tissues:
Conducts water and...PrimitiveAdvanced
mineralshydroidxylem
sugar/amino acidsleptoidphloem

The vascular arrangement: 3 points total

Advanced
radialamphiphloiccolateral

The xylem maturation:3 points total

Advanced
exarchmesarchendarch

Evolution in plants has also included a change in the relative emphasis on haploid and diploid plant bodies. Explain the evolutionary change here from primitive to advanced using examples. 4 points total
PrimitiveAdvanced
emphasized plant bodygametophyte/haploidsporophyte/diploid
example plant typemossfern

List advantages there are in the advanced plant body...ie. what are the selective forces that have caused these changes? 4 points total


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