100 - ___ = ____/79 max = 82.6 average

Biology of Plants
Spring 1998

Exam III


1. Name two products facilitating root penetration mucilage

slough cells

Name specifically the tissue occurring at the pointer columella

What developmental response has its perception here? gravitropism

2. Name the organ sectioned to make this slide root
What is the red tissue? xylem

What is the xylem/phloem arrangement? radial

What is the xylem maturation? exarch

The stele is not triarch; what is it? pentarch

What is the specific kind of stele shown here? protostele

What are the cell inclusions pointed out? amyloplasts

3. Name the organ sectioned to make this slide root
To what class of plants does the species belong? monocot

Name the tissue shown? cortex

Name the second tissue shown epidermis

What is special about the environment in which this organ grows? aerial

4. What is the name of the red layer? endodermis
What is the critical function of the red layer? selective mineral uptake

What is the name of the purplish layer just inside the red layer? pericycle

What is the most likely function of this layer? lateral root formation

5. What organ was sectioned to make this slide? stem
Name the red layer epidermis

Name the purple layer cork

Name the greenish stacked cells cambial zone

Name specifically the type of cells pointed out collenchyma


6. Name the tissue specifically shown here vascular cambium

What is the major function of the tissue? cell division

Name the red cells fusiform initials

Name the blue cells ray initials

What is the plane of section? tangential

7. Name the organ sectioned stem
What is the plane of section? transverse

Name the line of cells pointed out xylem ray

Name the triangular area at its end dilated phloem ray

Is this plant living in a improving or deteriorating environment? deteriorating

What is your evidence for this decision? thinner growth rings

8. What is the plane of section? radial
Name specifically the kind of cells running vertically tracheids

Which way (Right, Left, Up, Down) is the nearest epidermis? left

At what time of year were the pointed-out cells formed? fall/winter

Which is this plant: monocot or gymnosperm? gymnosperm

What is missing that would make it clearly a dicot? vessels

9. Name the organ sectioned stem
To what class of plants does the species belong? dicot

What is the kind of stele? eustele

10. Name the dark zone pointed out at the end apical dome
Name the two dark zones near the bottom of the view lateral/axillary bud

Name the two structures pointing up leaf primordia

Name the dark stripes running down the middle of the above provascular strand

Name the skin-like layer around these tissues protoderm

What material fills up these objects? ground meristem

What are the pointed-out bumps? edges of leaf primordium


11-12. You are about to view two slides (11 and 12) from the same plant...

What organ is sectioned here? leaf

Name the tissue pointed out palisade mesophyll

Name the second tissue pointed out spongy mesophyll

Comparing slide 11 and 12, which is found in the shade? slide 11

What is the evidence for your decision? "Specimen 12 has more palisade."

13. Which is the upper epidermis? at bottom of view/with stoma
What is your evidence for that decision? xylem closer to this one

Name the cells with the red walls pointed out guard cells

What is the opening called? stoma

Name the cells with the very dark chloroplasts bundle sheath

What kind of carbon-fixation reactions occur there? calvin cycle

Name the cells with the lighter chloroplasts mesophyll

What kind of carbon-fixation reactions occur there? C-4 reactions

14. What is are the two major functions of these hairs? hold insect
digest insect

What is this plant achieving through the use of these hairs? obtaining minerals

15. Name the division of plant whose organ is sectioned? Lycopodophyta
Name the organ sectioned leaf
16. Name the whole structure sectioned here strobilus
Name the genus of plant sectioned Selaginella

Name the large red objects pointed out megaspores

What will these contain upon maturity? megagametophyte

Name the small purplish objects microspores

What is contained in the objects upon maturity? microgametophyte

What are the chains of cells pointed out to you trabeculae

Name specifically the structure traced out for you megasporophyll


17. These were collected from the plant above; what escapes from the orange ones? sperm

What "escapes" first from the yellow ones? rhizoids

What condition do these two structures document? heterospory

18. Name the organ sectioned root
What is the critical evidence for this decision? protostele

Name the peripheral tissue pointed out periderm

From what tissue was that derived? pericycle

No more slides!
Name the two critical functions of root hairs in transpiration?
1 water intake via area increase
2 mineral intake via cation exchange
What makes "sap" in the xylem rise up the stem of a tall tree? There are three fundamentally different mechanisms involved!
1 root pressure push
2 capillarity climb in stem
3 evaporative pull from leaf
Besides photosynthesis and the associated gas exchange, what are three additional essential functions of typical leaves.
1 evaporative cooling
2 lifting water through plant
3 exporting sugars and amino acids in phloem
What two-parted mechanism provides the increased pressure in the leaf to cause the flow in the phloem?
1 sugar etc loading into phloem
2 osmosis of water
Assuming you have a deep soil what would be a great way to anchor a tall tree?
tap root
If you had a really shallow soil instead, what would be the alternative way?
buttress root
In your book there was an essay about how cork is harvested from the cork oak tree. In lecture I mentioned that girdling (removing the bark all the way around) a tree kills it. The book showed a photo of a cork oak with inches of bark removed all the way around. Is Ross wrong, or worse, lying? Is the photo wrong? How do you resolve this? 3 points
1. cork oak bark separates just outside the cork, not vascular cambium
2. the tree had only its cork layer removed in the photo...not the bark
3. Ross was not lying...the photo was correct


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