143 - _____ = _____ / ??? = ??.?%
Biology of Plants
Spring 2000

Exam IV

Name________________________

Slide 1 (5 points)

Name the organ shown to make this slide.frond

Name the brown areas? sori

What is the tan flap of tissue? indusium

What is the ploidy level of the green area? 2N

Specifically name the brown structures? sporangium

Slide 2 (5 points)
Name the whole structure shown in this slide. sporangium

What is the outer layer of cells as a whole? sterile jacket

What is the curved, purple, ridged line of cells? annulus

What is one critical process occurs inside this structure? meiosis

Specifically name what is released from this structure? spores

Slide 3 (6 points)
What structure was sectioned to make this slide? pine nut

Name the purple layer. megagametophyte

Name the greenish-blue structure in the middle. embryo

Name the greenish apical appendages on that structure. cotyledons

To what division/phylum of plants does the species belong? Coniferophyta

What is the spaghetti-like structure at the bottom? suspensor

Slide 4 (5 points)
What structure was sectioned to make this slide? pine root

Name the first tissue layer pointed out. secondary xylem

Name the second tissue layer pointed out. periderm

Name the outermost of two layers dying off on the outside. epidermis

Name the innermost of two layers dying off on the outside. cortex

Slide 5 (6 points)
What is the name for the yellow structure? microsporangiate strobilus

What is being shed from the yellow structure? pollen/endosporic microgametophyte

What is the name for the small purple structure? megasporangiate cone

What process is ocurring now on the surface of the purple structure? pollination

What process is occurring now inside the large green structure? syngamy

What will be released from the green structure this winter? seeds

Slide 6 (6 points)
What is the name for each of the large yellow structures? petal

What is the collective name for all of the large yellow structures? corolla

What is the name for each of the numerous yellow structures? stamens

What is the collective name for the numerous yellow structures? androecium

What is the name for each of the five greenish structures? carpels

What is the collective name for the five greenish structures? gynoecium

Slide 7 (6 points)
What is the technical name for the upcurved structure? microsporophyll

What is the technical name for the dark tip? microsporangium

Name of the first critical process occurring inside the dark tip? meiosis

Name the product of that process occurring inside the dark tip? microspore

Name the second critical process occurring inside the dark tip? mitosis

Name the product of that second process? pollen grain, endosporic µgametophyte

Slide 8 (7 points)
What is the common name for this whole structure? pollen grain

What is the technical name for this whole structure? endosporic microgametophyte

What is the name for the large cell? tube cell

What is the function for the large cell? digest path to egg

What is the name for the small cell? generative cell

What is the function for the small cell? divide mitotically to make 2 sperm

What is the technical name for the red layer (be specific!)? microspore wall

Slide 9 (8 points)
What is the common name for the whole structure being outlined? embryo sac

What is the technical name for this outlined structure? megagametophyte

What is the name for the two dark cells? synergids

What is the function for the two dark cells? burst pollen tube/sperm release

What is the name for the large cell? central cell

After syngamy, what is the function for the large cell? nutrients for embryo

What is the name for the small cell? egg

After syngamy what is the small cell called? zygote

Slide 10 (8 points)
What is the large cell and extending chain of cells? suspensor

What is the ploidy of this chain of cells? 2N

What is the light-blue tissue at the opposite end? endosperm

What is the ploidy of this ligght-blue tissue? 3N

What is the purple torpedo-shaped object? embryo

What is the ploidy level of this purple object? 2N

What is the tail-like object? funiculus

What process occurs in this tail-like object? translocation/transpiration

Slide 11 (4 points)
This is a cross section of a fruit.
Is the white area being outlined a true fruit or an accessory fruit? accessory

What is the glowing tissue? placenta

Is this fruit from a simple or compound pistil? compound

Considering it is fleshy and contains many seeds, what kind of fruit is this? berry, pepo

You have learned about extensive free-nuclear stages in both Pine and Angiosperms. (4 points)

What has to happen for a cell to become free-nuclear? mitosis w/o cytokinesis

What is the major free-nuclear stage in Pine? megagametophyte

What is the major free-nuclear stage in Angiosperms? endosperm

Evolution of megagametophytes. In the spaces below sketch and completely label the female gametophyte for the four plants. Tell what was lost (structure or function) or gained (perhaps covering layer) in this pathway 1-4. (26 points)
1. Fern female (or bisexual) gametophyte

rhizoid
thallus
archegonium
egg

2. Selaginella

megaspore wall
rhizoid
thallus
archegonium
egg

What was lost from 1-2? photosynthesis

What was gained from 1-2? megaspore wall

3. Pine

thallus
archegonium
egg
nucellus
integument

What was lost from 2-3? rhizoid

What was gained from 2-3?

a. nucellus b. integument

4. Flower

thallus
egg
nucellus
integument
carpel

What was lost from 3-4? archegonium

What was gained from 3-4? carpel wall

(4 points)

The gymno- part of gymnosperm means naked

What structure in a pine is specifically "gymno-"? ovule

The -sperm part of gymnosperm refers to seed

What tissue must be penetrated to deliver sperm in pines? nucellus

Evolution of microgametophytes. In the spaces below sketch and completely label the microgametophyte for the four plants. Tell what was lost or gained in this pathway 1-4. (19 points)
1. Fern

rhizoid
thallus
antheridium
sperm

2. Selaginella

microspore wall
antheridium
sperm

What was lost from 1-2? thallus
rhizoid

What was gained from 1-2? microspore wall

3. Pine

microspore wall
generative cell
tube cell
prothallial cell

What was lost from 2-3?

a. antheridium b. motility

4. Flower

microspore wall
generative cell
tube cell

What was lost from 3-4? prothallial cells

(4 points)

What is the ultimate placement of the microgametophyte in gymnosperms? micropyle

What is the ultimate placement of the microgametophyte in angiosperms? stigma

The stamen of a flower is equivalent to a pine microsporophyll

The equivalent of a carpel in a pine cone is megasporophyll

Heterosporous Life Cycle Diagram. Turn this page sideways and arrange the 20 labels provided to you on this page to demonstrate your understanding of the heterosporous life cycle in angiosperms. Note: you should know that the labels cannot be repositioned! Once stuck down, you are stuck with their position! So plan carefully! (20 points)


Exam IV Bonus

An ECSU professor had a student who submitted a manuscript to a journal for publication. The manuscript described a new species. The Editor-in-Chief of the journal sent the following email:
In my letter, I meant to qualify what your first reviewer said in the following way: the species diagnosis should clearly separate the autapomorphies of the species from synapomorphies of the genus and synapomorphies of the family. In a diagnosis of a genus I prefer to include only apomorphies shared by members of the genus, unless the included plesiomorphies can be clearly identified, e.g. if they are synapomorphies of the family. You did state the autapomorphies in your Remarks section quite well, so I think the manuscript is in good shape. But in the future, I will ask for clear separation of character states in any species diagnoses.

Provide a layman's explanation of these comments:
The species diagnosis should clearly separate the autapomorphies of the species from synapomorphies of the genus and synapomorphies of the family.

In your paper you must show how your new species has exclusive derived characteristics that are different from the shared characteristics known for the genus and for the family.

In a diagnosis of a genus I prefer to include only apomorphies shared by members of the genus, unless the included plesiomorphies can be clearly identified, e.g. if they are synapomorphies of the family.

In decribing a genus I prefer to discuss only those derived characters shared by the genus, unless the genus has primitive characteristics that are shared characteristics within the family.

You did state the autapomorphies in your Remarks section

You did describe the derived characteristics that are exclusive to your new species in the Remarks section.



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