Phungophobe's Phear -- "Higher Fungi"

If you cannot "stomach" mushrooms, then you are a fungophobe and this lecture is likely to be revolting to you...you have to face your fear here. The higher fungi simply refers to those organisms commonly placed by taxonomists into Kingdom Fungi.

Zygomycota = Zygomycetes

This division is in Kingdom Fungi and is probably the most primitive of the group. Go over the life cycle of Rhizopus.

Tell the interesting phototropism and spore dispersal mechanism in Pilobolus.

Ascomycota = Ascomycetes (Sac Fungi)

Show examples starting with yeasts and working up to morels.

Go through life cycle.

Notice how this life history lacks a motile phase!
It is anisogamous at least, but hard to call oogamous.

Asexual reproduction is commonly called the "imperfect" fungi.
In some species it is the only part of the life cycle known. These then are called members of the Deuteromycota. Deutero- means "duty" and it is the duty of mycologists (those who study fungi) to learn to identify the sexual stages that belong to these deuteromycetes. A recent example is on display in the laboratory. The deuteromycete fungi are important for producing industrial chemicals...penicillin and enzymes for detergents and for "stone washing" blue jeans).

Many ascomycete fungi are the fungal partner in a fungal/algal symbiosis known as lichens. The ascomycete provides the algal home and a way to survive desiccation and supplies of minerals from the enviroment, the algae provide carbohydrates for the fungus. It is likely a mutualism.

Bread MoldSac FungiClub FungiImperfects
KingdomFungiFungiFungiFungi
DivisionZygomycotaAscomycotaBasidiomycotaDeuteromycota
# Species75030,00025,00017,000
Wallchitinchitin/glucanchitin/glucanchitin/glucan
'gamy"isogamous"anisogamousisogamousunknown
Life Cyclezygoticsporic/kikaryoticsporic/dikaryoticunknown
ExamplesRhizopusSaccharomyces
Neurospora
Agaricus
Amanita
Penicillium
Aspergillus
Special
Vocabulary
sporangiophore
rhizoid
stolon
coenocytic
hypha(e)
gametangium
zygospore
budding
ascus
conidia
ascogonium
antheridium
heterokaryon
hypha(e)
ascocarp
ascospore
mycelium
hypha(e)
dikaryotic
heterokaryon
cap (pileus)
stalk (stipe)
ring (annulus)
cup (volva)
gills (lamellae)
mycelium
basidium
basidiospores
hypha(e)
conidia
mycelium
Notes: warm bread
endotrophic mycorrhizae
baking
wine
morels
truffles
cheese
ergot
Dutch elm disease
chestnut blight
ectotrophic mycorrhizae
LICHENS 20K
mushrooms
puffballs
shaggy manes
Psilocybe
amanitas
rusts
smuts
ectotrophic mycorrhizae
fairy rings
cheese
antibiotics


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