|taxon:||the general term for any systematic category:|
Genus + specific-epithet = Binomial
|incertae sedis:||of uncertain position
|biosystematics:||study of variation and evolution at the species and infraspecific taxa|
|classification:||assignment of plants to groups within a hierarchy of ranks based on structure, origins, and other characteristics|
|nomenclature:||a system of names for the various taxa, especially including the species binomial|
|phylogeny:||a reconstruction of evolutionary genealogy, descent from common ancestors|
|phylosystematics:||study of phylogeny and classification at taxa of genus and above
|apomorphic:||derived character states|
|autapomorphic:||character states exclusive to a particular taxon|
|plesiomorphic:||old, patristic, or primitive character states|
|synapomorphic:||shared derived character states
|polarity:||the understood direction from plesiomorphic state to apomorphic state often determined by stratigraphy (fossil analysis), ontogeny (recapitulates phylogeny), out-group comparison, etc.
|parsimony:||the simplest explanation, the shortest cladogram, the fewest steps in evolution, fewest homoplasies|
|homoplasy:||independent evolution of identical character states|
|convergence:||evolution of superficially similar features in unrelated taxa|
|parallelism:||evolution of similar features in related taxa|
|reversal:||loss of an apomorphic state, often reverting to a plesiomorphic state
|anagenesis:||divergence (growth) of branches in phylogeny|
|cladogenesis:||formation of branches in phylogeny
|cladistics:||a method used to determine branching patterns in phylogeny involving study of synapomorphic character states|
|phenetics:||a method used to determine natural relationships based on similarity of unweighted characters; numerical taxonomy
|cladogram:||a tree diagram expressing a hypothesis about branching in phylogeny|
|dendrogram:||a tree-like diagram consisting of node and internodes|
|phylogram:||a tree diagram expressing a hypothesis about branching and anagenesis in phylogeny
|holophyletic=clade:||all descendants from a common ancestor|
|monophyletic:||descended from a single ancestor (natural assemblage) |
|polyphyletic:||a group having several different ancestors (unnatural assemblage)|
This page © Ross E. Koning 1994.
The CBE citation style for this page would be: Koning, Ross E. 1994. "Taxonomy Vocabulary". Plant Physiology Website. http://koning.ecsu.ctstateu.edu/plant_biology/taxonvocab.html (your visit date).
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