wrong0123456789101112 Group Name:
right103102101100999897969594939291 
score10099.098.197.196.195.194.293.292.291.390.389.388.3.    

Bee HyperAttractiveName_____________________

You should have read the information page about bees before coming to class. This is a computer exercise in pollination biology. Why computers in biology? Bees are very dangerous to handle...it could be fatal for some of you! Computer bees are harmless "bugs." Moreover, we can vary the computer flowers without having a huge collection of expensive real flowers on hand all at the perfect stage of readiness for pollination! Also, we can do the project in a time less than a whole research career. The results given by the computer are consistent with those that have been obtained tediously in the field over a very long period of time.

You will design the specifications for two flowers and present them to a bee. The bee will visit each flower a certain number of times based upon how attractive you have made the flower and upon the temperature you have set. You will record the temperature, the characteristics of the two flowers and the number of visits to each flower. Your goal is to be able to answer the questions using the data you have collected.

The Effect of Color

Set the temperature to 20°C. Be sure all other variables are "none." Try all the colors for the flowers:

20°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1 nonenonenone 
Flower 2 nonenonenone 
Flower 3 nonenonenone 
Flower 4 nonenonenone 
Flower 5 nonenonenone 

What is the most attractive color of flower?   red     yellow     white     blue     purple  

What is the least attractive color of flower?   red     yellow     white     blue     purple  

Repeat the trials at the other two possible temperatures.

30°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1 nonenonenone 
Flower 2 nonenonenone 
Flower 3 nonenonenone 
Flower 4 nonenonenone 
Flower 5 nonenonenone 

 

-   /12

10°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1 nonenonenone 
Flower 2 nonenonenone 
Flower 3 nonenonenone 
Flower 4 nonenonenone 
Flower 5 nonenonenone 

Notice which colors are now the favorites and which are now the least-preferred.

Do bees change their color preferences as temperature is increased?   yes     no  

Why are bees attracted to certain colors?
 
And not to other colors?
 

The Effect of Fragrance

Set all the flowers to the best color. Then, holding all the other variables the same, change the fragrance:

20°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1  nonenone 
Flower 2" nonenone 
Flower 3" nonenone 
Flower 4" nonenone 
Flower 5" nonenone 

What is the most attractive fragrance?   sweet     spicy     acrid     fetid  

What is the least attractive fragrance?   sweet     spicy     acrid     fetid  

 

 

-   /16

Repeat the trials at the other two possible temperatures:

30°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1  nonenone 
Flower 2" nonenone 
Flower 3" nonenone 
Flower 4" nonenone 
Flower 5" nonenone 

10°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1  nonenone 
Flower 2" nonenone 
Flower 3" nonenone 
Flower 4" nonenone 
Flower 5" nonenone 

Notice which fragrances are now the favorites and which are now the least-preferred.

Do bees change their fragrance preferences as temperature is increased?   yes     no  

Check over your past experiments to answer these three questions:

If a flower is the wrong color and produces no fragrance, will a bee visit at all?   yes     no  

If a flower produces neither a nectar nor pollen reward, will a bee visit at all?   yes     no  

Will the bee make a return visit to such a flower?   yes     no  

The Effect of Nectar

Set all the flowers to the best fragrance as well as the best color. Then, holding all other variables the same, vary the nectar:

20°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1   none 
Flower 2"" none 
Flower 3"" none 
Flower 4"" none 
Flower 5"" none 

 

-   /20

30°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1   none 
Flower 2"" none 
Flower 3"" none 
Flower 4"" none 
Flower 5"" none 

10°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1   none 
Flower 2"" none 
Flower 3"" none 
Flower 4"" none 
Flower 5"" none 

What is the most preferred nectar at 30 degrees?   watery     sweet     sugary     bitter  

What is the most preferred nectar at 20 degrees?   watery     sweet     sugary     bitter  

What is the most preferred nectar at 10 degrees?   watery     sweet     sugary     bitter  

What nectar is the least-preferred?   watery     sweet     sugary     bitter  

Why do bees prefer the quality of nectar observed to be best at 10 degrees?
 
Why do bees prefer the quality of nectar observed to be best at 30 degrees?
 

 

 

 

 

-   /18

The Effect of Pollen

Leave the flowers at the best color and fragrance. Set the temperature to 20 degrees. Set the nectar to its best state for 20 degrees. Then, change the pollen type:

20°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1     
Flower 2"""  
Flower 3"""  
Flower 4"""  
Flower 5"""  

Set the temperature to 30 degrees. Set the nectar to its best state for 30 degrees. Repeat the project:

30°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1     
Flower 2"""  
Flower 3"""  
Flower 4"""  
Flower 5"""  

Set the temperature to 10 degrees. Set the nectar to its best state for 10 degrees. Repeat the project.

10°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Flower 1     
Flower 2"""  
Flower 3"""  
Flower 4"""  
Flower 5"""  

What is the preferred pollen at all these temperatures?   dry     clumped     sticky     wet  

The least-preferred pollen at 10°C is          , and it is more acceptable at      °C because...

 

 

 

-   /22

What are the Optimum Flower Characteristics?

Check through your projects so far to answer these three questions:

What is the optimal combination of flower characteristics at 10 degrees?

10°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Optimal
Flower
     

What is the optimal combination of flower characteristics at 20 degrees?

20°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Optimal
Flower
     

What is the optimal combination of flower characteristics at 30 degrees?

30°CColorOdorNectarPollen#Visits
Optimal
Flower
     

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-   /15

 

This page © Ross E. Koning 1994.

 

 

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Send comments and bug reports to Ross Koning at koningre∂gmail⋅com.