Plant hormones influence the early development of an ovule as it becomes a seed and of a carpel as it becomes a fruit...
|Early in development the ovule produces the hormone||CK||which causes the cells of the carpel to divide and increase in number.|
|Later, the ovule produces the hormone||GA||which causes the cells of the carpel to expand to achieve full fruit size.|
|Finally, the "mother" plant produces the hormone||AbA||which causes the embryo to go dormant inside the ovule that has become a seed.|
Now that the fruit has grown to full size, we can now classify it. Indeed the classification of fruits can assist us in the identification of plant species.
|Simple||1||1||1||grape, cherry, tomato, bean|
|Multiple||∞||∞ (1 each)||fused into one body||mulberry, pineapple|
|Composition||flower parts involved||examples|
|True||ovary wall only||cherry, tomato|
|Accessory||receptacle ± sepals, etc.||apple, blueberry|
|fleshy||drupe||stony pit||cherry, peach, almond, walnut|
|berry||seeds in flesh||grape, tomato, orange, banana|
|pome||cartilaginous core||apple, pear, quince|
|dry dehiscent||follicle||splits one side||milkweed, magnolia|
|legume||splits two sides||pea, bean, peanut|
|capsule||multiple openings||poppy, hibiscus|
|dry indehiscent||achene||one free seed||daisy, sunflower, strawberry|
|caryopsis||seed coat & fruit wall fused||corn, wheat, rice, barley|
|nut||leathery in involucre||acorn, chestnut, filbert|
Note: any one fruit can be classified in each of the three schemes. Try to classify some common fruits at the supermarket, in a salad bar, in your refrigerator, or in the cafeteria using all three schemes for each fruit.
This page © Ross E. Koning 1994.
Go to the Course Schedule Page.
Go to the Plant Physiology Information Homepage.
Send comments and bug reports to Ross Koning at koningre∂gmail⋅com.